I have written about these two different forms of dance in the same post, because, although they are different, they have some elements in common. They come from two regions that are not too far from each other and also they have some movement patters in common, such as the tossing of the head and spinning of the hair. This movement seems to be also common to many Middle Eastern and Northern African trance dances, such as zaar from Egypt, and those dances that may have their roots in trance dances, such as Moroccan shikhat.
I have become aware of this particular form of Middle Eastern dance from Iraq called Kawliya (also known as Kawleeya), through Yutube videos where Daila performs this genre. Dalia is an international award winner professional belly dancer based in the Czech Republic. You can see an example of her performance below.
When I first saw one of these videos, I was amazed. Daila is a great bellydancer and moves in ways that seem almost humanly impossible! As for the Kawliya dance, it seems to be characterised by the shoulder shimmies and the head rolls and energetic hair flipping. Kawleeya are a gypsy group in Iraq and Kawleeya literally means Gipsy. An Iraqi friend of mine, Jeanan, told me that, before the war, Kawleeya was a disgraceful dance. It was only performed by common people, by gypsies or by prostitutes (many of which in Iraq were Kawleeya), hence the bad reputation of this dance.
However, as my friend tells me, after the war things have changed and the gypsies rose to become artists that represented Iraq. Now, all Iraqi women, according to my friend, want to dance like this and dance the Kawleeya way at social events. Personally, I like this dance and I think it is beautiful to watch, even though I would never attempt the energetic hair flipping for fear of injuring my neck. The ambivalent attitude that Iraqis have towards this dance seems to have parallels to the attitude of Moroccans towards shikhat or of Egyptians towards belly dance performers. On one hand, the dancer’s profession is seen as not worthy of respect and dancers, in same cases, are outcast. On the other, there is pride towards these dance forms that belong to their cultures, thus forming part of their cultural identity.
I have posted one of Daila’s Kawliya performances above. Everybody I spoke to agrees that Daila is an accomplished dancer; however, some people think that the way she performs is not authentic. I personally like the way Daila dances, but she is a professional belly dancer based in Europe, hence she performs for the stage and her dance may be influenced by various styles she is accomplished in. The way Kawleeya people perform maybe be a bit different, but I have never had the chance to see them dance so I cannot tell. After all, all dance forms, when they are transmitted between different cultures, go through adaptations and changes. Please feel free to comment with your opinions and give some information in case you know more about Kawliya.
Khaleeji dance (with Khaleeji meaning ‘of the Gulf’) is a dance style typical of the Arabic peninsula and the Persian Gulf including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen, Kuwait and parts of Iraq. This type of dance is completely different from the type of dance most commonly referred to as belly dance, which is Egyptian, Lebanese and Turkish styles. An authority on this Middle Eastern dance style is Kay Hardy Campbell, a Boston based writer, dancer and musician, specialised in the Middle East and Saudi Arabia.
Dancers of Khaleeji wear a characteristic piece of clothing, called thobe nashal (a sort of long, very full and wide caftan, often richly embroidered). The thobe nashal is usually in a brilliant colour and the dancer does not wear a hip scarf or belt. Because of its shape and its ample sleeves, the thobe nashal is also used as a prop by the dancer, who holds the dress up in front of her like an apron and makes it billow whilst her pelvis undulates gently to R-L-R, L-R-L stepping patterns. Also, the wide sleeves of the thobe nashal can be held up to frame head slides or used as a veil.
Khaliji style Arabic dance involves a lot of focus on footwork, spins and a lot of movement in the torso and upper body. Also, while performing Khaleeji, dancers toss their long unbound hair from one shoulder to the other.
Khaleeji rhythm is different from the classical Middle Eastern rhythms and it is characterised by heavy rolling beats. One of the most common khaleegy rhythm, also called Saudi rhythm, is a syncopated medium speed 4/4 rhythm with heavy accents (dums) on beats 1, “2.5”, 4, with the “.5” being the rest between the major beats in the measure.
The instruments most commonly used for Khaleeji style music are frame drums such as tars and bendirs, while the ud is used as the primary instrument. BUY this DVD from our USA Shop or from our UK Shop
A CD called Khaliji (by RT Productions) has been released by Naser Musa and Souhail Kaspar, two musicians specialised in Arabic music.